Sunday Series

Each Sunday we share 1 infection, disease or genetical anomaly which is common in our region and ways of preventing and treating it if possible. Furthermore, we also share informations about some well known medical procedures, their indications and contraindications. The appropriate topics will be under their respective titles.

The information we tend to share is suitable for everyone (medical and non-medical students). 

All the information we share for Sunday Series are taken from reliable resources, such as: MayoClinic, ClevelandClinic, NHS, WebMD, Medscape and MedlinePlus websites. For further more information read about those topics from these website. But most importantly, in case you don’t feel well, DO NOT try to diagnose yourself based on what you are reading, go to the hospital and see a doctor. 

You can follow us on social media to view those series in a more fun way.

Educate yourself and help us spread awareness! 

Medical Procedures



What is Esophageal Manometry? 

It is a test that is used to identify problems with movement and pressure in the esophagus. 

Indication of Esophageal Manometry?

  • Evaluation of noncardiac chest pain or esophageal symptoms not diagnosed by endoscopy 
  • Evaluation for achalasia or another type of non-obstructive dysphagia
  • Prior to esophageal pH monitoring to assess the location of the LES for proper electrode positioning
  • Evaluation of esophageal motility problems associated with systemic diseases

Esophageal Manometry

Medical Knowledge


What is Diabetes Mellitus? 

Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar (glucose) and fat from the food you eat. Diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin.

Glucose is vital to your health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It’s also your brain’s main source of fuel.

No matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. It is an autoimmune condition caused by the body attacking its own pancreas with antibodies. In people with type 1 diabetes, the damaged pancreas doesn’t make insulin. This type of diabetes may be caused by a genetic predisposition or faulty beta cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), an important source of fuel for your body. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin, a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells, or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but today more children are being diagnosed with the disorder, probably due to the rise in childhood obesity.

Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus?

Type 1 diabetes: treatment involves the use of insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, frequent blood sugar checks, and carbohydrate counting. 

Type 2 diabetes: treatment primarily involves lifestyle changes, weight lose, eating healthy, regular exercise, monitoring of blood sugar and diabetes medications or insulin therapy. This will help keep your blood sugar level closer to normal, which can delay or prevent complications

Diabetes Mellitus

What is Lactose Intolerance? 

Is a common digestive problem where the body is unable to digest lactose, a type of sugar mainly found in milk and dairy products.

What causes Lactose Intolerance?

A deficiency in the enzyme lactase which is responsible for digesting lactose. 

Lactose Intolerance


What is Rhinitis? 

It is the inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane of the nose, characterised by a runny nose and stuffiness and usually caused by the common cold or seasonal allergy.

Types of Rhinitis?

Rhinitis can be either Acute (short-lived) or Chronic (long-standing). 

Acute rhinitis commonly results from viral infections but may also be a result of allergies, bacteria and other causes.

Chronic rhinitis usually occurs with chronic sinusitis.


What is Aortic Aneurysm? 

It is an abnormal bulge that occurs in the wall of the major vessel (aorta) that carries blood from your heart to your body.

What causes Aortic Aneurysm?

  • High blood pressure
  • Infection
  • Atherosclerosis
  • High cholesterol 

Aortic Aneurysm

What is Bird Flu? 

It is a type of influenza virus that rarely affect humans.

What causes Bird flue?

It occurs naturally in wild fowl and can spread into domestic poultry. It is transmitted via contact with an affected bird faeces or secretion from its nose, mouth or eye and via undercooked poultry meat or eggs from infected birds.

Bird Flu

What is Bronchitis? 

It is an inflammation of the lining of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs. It can be either acute or chronic.

What causes Bronchitis?

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, typically the same viruses that cause colds and flu (influenza). Antibiotics don’t kill viruses, so this type of medication isn’t useful in most cases of bronchitis.

The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is cigarette smoking. Air pollution and dust or toxic gases in the environment or workplace also can contribute to the condition.


What is Atrial Fibrillation? 

It is an irregular and often rapid heart rate that can increase your risk of stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

What causes Atrial Fibrillation?

The upper chambers of your heart (atria) experience chaotic electrical signals. As a result, they quiver. This leads to a fast and irregular heart rhythm.

Atrial Fibrillation

What is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy? 

It is a neurodegenerative disorder which is likely caused by repeated head traumas.

What causes Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy?

CTE is a very rare condition. It has been found in the brains of people who played contact sports, such as football, as well as others. Some symptoms of CTE are thought to include difficulties with thinking (cognition), physical problems, emotions and other behaviors.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? 

Is a rare, vision-threatening, parasitic infection seen most often in people who wear contact lens. It is often characterized by pain out of proportion to findings and the late clinical appearance of a stromal ring-shaped infiltrate. It is both difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat.

What causes Acanthamoeba keratitis?

A microscopic organism called Acanthamoeba, which is common in nature and is usually found in bodies of water (lakes, oceans and rivers) as well as domestic tap water, swimming pools, hot tubs, soil and air.

Acanthamoeba keratitis

What is Angelman Syndrome? 

Is a genetic disorder. It causes developmental disabilities, neurological problems and sometimes, seizures.

What causes Angelman Syndrome?

A problems with a gene located on chromosome 15 called the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene.

Angelman Syndrome

What is Cervical Cancer? 

Is the formation of tumor on the cervix, caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).

What are the types of Cervical Cancer:

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma  

Cervical Cancer

What is Precocious Puberty? 

Is when a child’s body begins changing into that of an adult (puberty) too soon. Puberty that begins before age 8 in girls and before age 9 in boys is considered precocious puberty.

What causes Precocious Puberty?

  • Tumors (astrocytomas, gliomas)
  • Hypothalamic hamartomas 
  • Congenital anomalies (hydrocephalus, arachnoid cyst) 

Precocious Puberty

What is Acromegaly? 

Is a hormonal disorder that develops when your pituitary glands produces too much growth hormone during childhood. 

What causes Acromegaly?

  • Most common cause is benign tumor (adenoma) of the Pituitary gland
  • Tumor in other parts of the body such as lung or pancreas 


What is Cushing’s syndrome? 

Is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

What causes Cushing’s syndrome?

  • Most common cause is Adenoma, a benign tumour of the pituitary gland
  • Your body produces high levels of cortisol on its own 
  • Use of oral corticosteroids medication

Cushing's Syndrome

What is swine flu?

Also known as the H1N1 virus, is a relatively new strain of an influenza virus that causes symptoms similar to the regular flue.

Risk factors?

  • Adults over age 65
  • Children under 5 years old
  • Young adults and children under age 19 who are receiving long-term aspirin (Bufferin) therapy
  • People with compromised immune systems (due to a disease such as AIDS)
  • Pregnant women
  • People with chronic illnesses such as asthma, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or neuromuscular disease

Swine Flu

Close Menu